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MLAA2018 Research Submissions

Rural Landscape Character Framework for Tourist Routes

International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM)

Assoc. Prof. LAr. Dr. Khalilah Zakariya

Asst. Prof. LAr. Dr. Putri Haryati Ibrahim

Nur Amirah Abdul Wahab

Rural tourism is one of the government’s agenda to increase job opportunities and eliminate poverty of the local communities. The conservation of natural and cultural landscape can contribute to the sustainability of tourism products, such as traditional homestay, local food, local arts and crafts, agricultural activities, and experiencing natural and rural settings. Tourism routes are the connections between the tourists and their destinations, where the landscape settings play a crucial role in shaping the tourist experience. However, the fragmentation of rural attractions and the lack of integration along the rural route result in the disconnection of tourism products and disrupt the pleasurable experience. The imbalanced rural corridor development dismisses the potentials of local economic opportunities along the tourism routes.


Therefore, it is important that the rural landscape characters are integrated into landscape master plans and tourism route planning, to ensure that rural developments are more wholistic and sustainable. The goal of this research is to establish the Rural Landscape Character Framework to guide Landscape Architects and Local Authorities incorporate significant landscape characters into landscape masterplans and tourism masterplans. This is in line with Dasar Landskap Negara, Landscape Architecture Agenda 2030, Dasar Perancangan Fizikal Desa Negara and Rural Tourism Masterplan Malaysia. This research has examined the Kuala Selangor – Sabak Bernam route in Selangor as one of the case studies. The Rural Landscape Character Framework proposed in this research can be adopted in the formulation of Landscape Master Plan (Pelan Induk Landskap) particularly during the Technical Report preparation, which is crucial in the proposal of landscape masterplan concept, design strategies and action plans. The identification of these significant landscape characters corresponds to LAA2030’s strategic focus areas on safeguarding and managing natural resources (SF02), and inclusion of local social and cultural values through promoting local identity and image (SF03). The recognition and inclusion of rural landscape characters in future plans of the rural areas can help natural and cultural landscapes to sustain alongside future developments. This will also help to ensure the livelihood of the rural community are integrated into the plans.

Aboveground Carbon Sequestration Potential in Open Space

and Urban Green Reserve, Case Study at Pasir Gudang, Johor

Universiti Teknologi Mara (UiTM)

Dr. Alamah Misni

Ms. Sakurah Jamaluddin

The world is experiencing rapid development and urbanisation of urban areas that cause an increase in the carbon emission which contributes to greenhouse gasses and global warming. The environment has been declining for the past few years while extreme weather has impacted some urban areas in Malaysia. In 2009, the Malaysian government pledged to achieve up to 40% voluntary reduction in carbon emission intensity by 2020. Now it is time to move forward by proposing the green and low-carbon way to offset carbon emission from both planning and landscaping perspectives.


This research demonstrates how urban green reserves, being a vital land use component in the urban area, is effective in carbon sequestration to absorb and store carbon emission for an extended term. Through the natural process of photosynthesis, mature trees planted in urban green reserve and open space can act as a carbon sink. This research computes the volume of carbon sequestration of trees planted in urban green reserve and the open space within the study area. Through this study, the accurate allometric relationship for the total above-ground biomass with the tree diameter and height was developed to estimate the rate of carbon sequestration in Pasir Gudang. The results based on mature trees inventory revealed that the total amount of carbon sequestration contributed by both urban green reserve and open space were 2,238.183 tons of carbon per year. Within the design parameters of the case study area, the total contribution of carbon reduction was merely 3.15% per year compared to the target of 10% carbon reduction via carbon sequestration. The total balance of carbon reduction that needs to be offset via carbon sequestration is 6.85%. Therefore, there is a need to provide smart planning and consolidating of low carbon initiatives to increase the contribution of carbon sequestration for a healthier environment in the urban area. 

Impact of Landscape Settings on Walkability and Healthy Lifestyle

in Tropical Climate

Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM)

LAr. Zanariah Kasim

Dr. Mohd Fairuz Shahidan

Associate Prof. Dr. Norsidah Ujang

A suitable microclimate can increase pedestrian comfort, encourage walkability and support healthy lifestyle. This study aimed at measuring the effectiveness of selected types of Landscape Environmental Setting for Pedestrian (LESP) in influencing the thermal comfort and comfortable walking distance in tropical urban environments. Field measurement data and survey were conducted under 5 different types of LESP in a university campus. The types are No shade (Type 1), Metal deck roof (Type 2), One row of trees (Type 3), Combined deck roof and trees (Type 4), and Two rows of trees (Type 5). Pedestrian thermal comfort is assessed by measuring i) Air temperature (Ta), ii) Globe temperature (Tg), iii) Wind velocity (v), iv) Surface temperature (Ts), and v) Relative humidity (Rh). Data were analysed and ranked according to the comfort level of the pedestrians and comfortable walking distance. Results indicate that different types of LESP provide different thermal comforts. The findings also proved that pedestrians can walk along the pedestrian walkway up to 1km with the condition of continuous shading on top of walkway from two rows of tree (LESP Type 5). This will lead to a tropical healthy lifestyle and comfortable walking due to the effective landscape setting and environment. The findings may be helpful for landscape architects in specifying appropriate microclimate interventions to enhance walkability and healthy lifestyle in tropical climate.

Heat in KL City-Mitigating Heat Through Natural Cooling Device

Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM)

Prof. Madya. Gs. Dr. Mohd Johari Mohd Yusof

Prof. Madya. Dr. Helmi Zulhaidi Mohd Shafri

Gs. Junainah Binti Abu Kasim

Green areas in a city are the foundation of the natural productivity in the urban structure. It is also known as natural cooling device which plays a vital role in our cities as an urban lung, discharging oxygen to reduce the city’s heat, and the wall for harmful air pollution. However, urbanization happens, and green space was sacrifice for this rapid urban expansion. Recently, the attention to mitigate the urban climate phenomenon effected from the degradation of green space issues widely get attentions by many researchers. The formation of heat radiates from various development activity and others of heat sources are intensely delimited the green space roles to produce a natural thermal comfort to the city ambience thus increase the urban heat temperature. Therefore, the need to identify its significant is a must and valuable to explore. Hence, the purpose of this study is to utilises aerial images of 2002, 2012, and 2017, in order to: first, identify urban green space patterns from 2002 to 2017 and secondly, assess causal relationships between urban green space patterns and urban heat temperature between the periods. This research tests the suitability of object-based classification methods of the remote sensing images in terms of their capability to correctly classify urban green space patterns in Kuala Lumpur.


The study also widely applied the cross-sectional method to investigate the correlation links between green space pattern against heat temperature distribution by using spatial analyst regression and spatial analysis statistic test.  The research further examined whether the causal link varied spatially over the study area and finally could quantitatively analyse the effects of the green space degradation towards increasing heat event in KL. From the research finding, the loss of green space size in the city can be compared to a total of 2,843 units of football fields, transformed forever, in just 10 years. The huge transformation of green space use into built up areas within this period has increase an average mean temperature up to 2.1°c per year.  The main contribution of this finding is to perform a new dimension solution in green space spatial analysis development that could reflects the influence of future heat distribution in urban environment settings.  Besides, the implementation of GIS advance technology as new mitigation tools in analysing urban climate event as well as monitoring the loss of green space in this city can provide a variety of enhanced information which could offer city planners and urban landscapes to defend decisions about protecting the ‘natural cooling device’.

Evidence-Based Planning -

Penang Green Connectors Project

Think City Sdn. Bhd.

One of Penang’s competitive advantages is its liveability factor. Studies have shown that proximity to green open spaces and nature contributes significantly to overall wellbeing and quality of life. It is therefore of paramount importance that Penang has a well-defined network of open spaces that maximises the potential for social interaction, economic activity, and environmental preservation. The Penang Green Connectors Project demonstrates how geospatial tools (GIS) can be used to analyse the landscape, demonstrate the need for an expanded open space system and inform the location and design of future networks in achieving one of the Sustainable Development Goal 11 targets which is to provide universal access to safe, inclusive and accessible, green and public spaces, particularly for women and children, older persons and persons with disabilities.

MLAA2017 Research Submissions

Reliability of the Visual Resource Assessment Procedure (VRAP)
in Assessing Malaysia

Visual Landscape Quality

Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM)

LAr. Mohd Nazri Saidon
LAr. Dr. Mohd Kher Hussein

Visual quality contributes significantly to quality of life (Lange, 1994) and lately, the public has begun to be aware about the importance of keeping a good environment, as well as conserving and protecting visual resources. For example, in a few cases in Malaysia, members of the public have complained to local authorities regarding the blockage of a good view because a huge advertisement signage has been placed at the junction, thus distracting the motorists view and causing a hazardous risk. Another example are developments that will cause potential interventions to the natural environment and diminish visual quality.

As a result, people questioned and queried about the functions and responsibilities of “the landscape architecture profession” and whether this is the most suitable profession to safeguard the visual quality of our environment, and incorporate effective resource management in each design approach, primarily the fragile environment component in this country. Besides that, assessment of visual quality has become more pertinent due to several threats. 

Therefore, to what extent ‘landscape architect’ is able to protect visual quality from distracting in a simple way, with minimal cost and uses minimal time in order to inform the local authority and the public.

There are many methodologies currently used to assess visual quality of landscapes in many parts of the world. Nevertheless, what is reliable in one country may not be so in another country, due to differences in several factors such as weather, cultural and people. Currently, there is no specific and reliable methodology for the visual assessment of our uniquely Malaysian landscapes. Many of the methodologies applied have not been tested for reliability, and thus difficult for landscape architects to use and refer to in their daily work. 

This research describes a study to test the reliability of the Visual Resource Assessment Procedure to assess the visual landscape, by Malaysian landscape experts. Visual Resource Assessment Procedure (VRAP) is a technique for assessing visual landscape quality and it has been widely used in the United States, unlike Malaysia. The result of this study indicated that VRAP is a reliable tool for assessing the visual landscape and will assist professionals and researchers in assessing visual landscape quality in Malaysia, with great confidence.

Cycling Route Guidelines

for Residential Neighbourhood Area towards Sustainable Mobility

Universiti Teknologi Mara (UITM)

LAr. Dr. Nurhayati Abd Malek
Mohd Zahid bin Mohd Salleh
Amanina Nashar
Noriah Othman
Sharifah Khalizah Syed Othman Thani

Healthy living for the people is one of the essential criteria included in the second strategy of Malaysian National Development Strategy (MyNDS) of the Eleventh Malaysian Plan (2016-2020), which is listed under the sustainable well-being plan. The Malaysian government has introduced more comprehensive national town and country planning policies and several relevant action plans in the country’s development plans. The goal is to provide necessary physical and social infrastructure to improve the quality of life. 

Indeed, the actual thrust of our National 2020 Vision Policy also stresses on the social agenda, as a key component in the formulation of economic policies, where the ultimate measure of economic success is the achievement of higher living standards and the well-being of the people. Current statistics released by the World Health Organization (WHO) 2017, stated that among the significant contributions to chronic disease across the globe, a lack of involvement in physical activities, is a major factor. Hence, increased physical activities amongst the population is included as one of the agenda in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. 

Wellness and health problems, emphasizing on transport infrastructure alone, as well as public awareness of cycling activities. Prior to these, it is believed that through the implementation of sustainable mobility approaches, appropriate infrastructure will encourage and increase more cycling activities among Malaysian, apart from producing environmentally friendly networks for its citizens. 

In line with this notion, this study aims to understand the relationship between perceived environmental and cycling activity participation within residential neighborhood areas. Meanwhile, the proposed guideline hopes to assist the designers in implementing the design which meet the needs and comfort of cyclist and other pedestrians in future.

Assessment Tool of Outdoor Neighbourhood Design & Attributes

for Community Social Interaction : Incorporating Islamic Values (ONIVAS)

Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM)

Dr. Mohd Yazid Bin Mohd Yunos
Arinah Rozhan
Dr. Sumarni Ismail
Prof. Madya LAr. Dr. Nor Atiah Ismail
Dr. Nor Kalsum Mohd Isa

Vision 2020, which was introduced by the former Prime Minister, Tun Dr Mahathir Muahammad, sets 9 main challenges which include developing a caring, fully moral and ethical society. Rancangan Malaysia ke-11 in the 4th chapter also highlighted efforts to produce a united and harmonious society. However, statistics and ongoing issues pertaining to Malaysia show a rise in the rate of crime and aggression amongst the society. 

This negative trend of social behaviour is also known as negative social interaction. In relation to the declining trend of social interaction in Malaysia, this research intend to look into the development of social interaction in neighbourhood settings, by incorporating the values of Islam. Social interaction will reduce the impact of negative social interaction by developing social trust among the community, which will improve the quality of life from negative behavior, increase a sense of responsibility and familiarity, develop a sense of community, enhance social support and increase residents’ satisfaction. 

Social studies have conceptualized that neighborhood and culture can indirectly influence a person's interaction in their immediate setting. The importance of neighborhood and particularly the rights of neighbours can be found extensively elaborated in the Quran. It is also worthwhile to note that the rights of neighbours in Islamic teaching are not limited to Muslim society itself, but also encompasses non-Muslims alike. However, it is hard for Landscape Architects to ensure that the criteria of neighbourhood design reflects Islamic values as previous research elaborates the study from theoretical and conceptual perspectives only. 

Therefore, there is a need to develop a tool that can assess the quality of outdoor neighbourhood design, which reflects Islamic values in promoting social interaction amongst the community. The Assessment Tool will assist Landscape Architects to find the best quality of outdoor neighbourhood design that will contribute to the development of the community and the society, while reducing fear and the rate of crime.

Quality Assessment Elements

for Single Palm

Universiti Islam Antarabangsa Malaysia (UIAM)

Nur Athirah bt Ahmad Sharip
LAr. Dr. Jasasikin Bin Ab Sani

Early Warning System

& Community Resilient

for Disaster Risk Management

in Lembah Bertam, Cameron Highlands

Universiti Islam Antarabangsa Malaysia (UIAM)

Prof. Madya LAr. Dr. Mohd Ramzi Mohd Hussain
Prof. Emiretus Ismawi Hj. Zen
Izawati Tukiman
Rahsidi Sabri Muda
Sivadasis Thirughevam

Adaptation of Sustainable Practices

for Urban Park Management

Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM)

Nur Khaira Mohd Salleh
LAr. Asraf Bin Abdul Rahman 
LAr. Dr. Roziya Bt. Ibrahim

Design Recommendation Tool

for Green Open Spaces in Malaysia

Universiti Teknology MARA (UiTM)

LAr. Dr. Nurhayati Abd Malek    
Amanina Nashar

Reestablishing the Vibrancy

and Liveability

of the Pre-Colonial Malay Town

Universiti Teknology MARA (UiTM)

LAr. Zul Azri Bin Abd Aziz 
Dr. Raziah Ahmad            
Zainuddin Bin Ab Rahman

Impact of Landscape Architects' Bourdieu Capitals Towards Promoting

Their Subordinates' Creativity    

Universiti Teknology MARA (UiTM)

Mohd Ruzaini Che Zahari
Prof. Madya Sr. Dr. Mohd Hisham Ariffin
Dr. Noriah Othman

Sustaining Engagement

in Urban Community Farming: Addressing Motivational

and Deterrent Factors

Universiti Teknology MARA (UiTM)

Rabiatul Adawiyah bt Latip
Dr. Noriah Othman
Prof. Madya Sr. Dr. Mohd Hisham Ariffin

The Computing Fluid Dynamic Simulation of Wind Flow Analysis

in Landscape Design  

Universiti Teknology MARA (UiTM)

Nor Diana Aziz
LAr. Ramly Hasan
Sr. Ghazali Mohd Amin
Prof. Madya Sr. Dr. Zulkiflee Abd Latif
Prof. Sr. Dr. Abdul Hadi Nawawi

Relationship of Comfortably and Safety for Evaluating Hazardous Trees

Universiti Teknology MARA (UiTM)

LAr. Ramly Hasan
Nor Diana Aziz
Sr. Ghazali Mohd Amin
Prof. Madya Sr. Dr. Zulkiflee Abd Latif
Prof. Sr. Dr. Abdul Hadi Nawawi

MLAA2016 Research Submissions

Eco Public Art

Placemaking Framework

International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM)

Khalilah Zakariya
Syamim Azhari

The integration of public art in landscape architecture has been known to promote activities, values, functions and roles to the public. The discourse on the contribution of public art towards the social wellbeing of the public has gained a growing attention among landscape architects, local authorities and academicians over past three decades. This is especially relevant in promoting public participation that is in line with Local Agenda 21. The public’s engagement in the execution of public art has been widely advocated as part of the placemaking process. However, in Malaysia, there is currently no existing framework that can act as a point of reference for landscape architects to adopt when engaging with public. Furthermore, there is an escalating concern in the industry on the needs to create public space projects that are green and eco-friendly, while also improving the public’s appreciation and awareness of the environment. To achieve this, the implementation of Eco Public Art as an approach to transform underutilized public spaces has been widely implemented in many countries.


The aim of this research was to establish the Eco Public Art Placemaking Framework to guide Local Authorities and Landscape Architects adopt public participation in the public art process, in line with Local Agenda 21. This research has examined Laman Seni Shah Alam as a Case Study, which is a back lane revitalization project that has been transformed through Eco Public Art.


This research has discovered several key findings. First, the Eco Public Art Placemaking Framework is a collaborative and multidisciplinary framework that can be adopted by Local Authorities, Consultants, Developers and the Community in incorporating public participation in public art. The execution of Public Art should include representatives from the public, and this is in line with Local Agenda 21 in ensuring that public spaces meet the needs of the community. The framework is not limited to Eco Public Art, but rather can be adopted by Landscape Architects for any public art projects. Second, the implementation of Eco Public Art was found increase people’s awareness of the environment, which reflects the potentials of this type of projects in creating greener spaces. Third, the identification of the Eco Public Art Attributes can guide Landscape Architects to design public art that can be appreciated and understood by the public. The implementation of the public art in public spaces also helps to revitalize underutilized spaces as functional spaces for public use. This research concludes that the framework is essential to be adopted by Local Authorities and Landscape Architects in Malaysia, and it can enable a more integrated and practical process between the local government, consultants, artists and the public.

The Predictors of Butterfly Diversity
in Small Urban Park

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM)

Zanariah binti Jasmani
Lee Yoke Lai
Sapura binti Mohamad
Nurul Hidayah binti Mohd Derus
Izzati binti Ghazali

In the face of urban green spaces getting smaller and fragmented due to urbanisation, their capability to serve as habitats for wildlife is threatened. In the tropical countries, there is a dearth of knowledge on biodiversity in urban green spaces – and especially smaller green areas. This study analyses the characteristics of small urban parks in relation to urban biodiversity and ecological functions. We studied nine small urban parks in Malaysia using the combined field survey method of structured observation and field measurements. The measured variables were divided into the three broad categories of physical characteristics, species richness and human factors. We used butterflies as the indicator because they are relatively easy to recognise, sensitive to environmental change, have unique life cycles and biological demand that makes them suitable for assessing biodiversity. Pearson correlations and multiple regressions were conducted to analyse the relationships between the variables and to identify which of these have a significant effect on butterfly species richness and abundance. Findings show that butterfly species richness is positively influenced by the percentage of canopy cover, total shrubs, richness of shrub species, presence of flowering shrubs, and presence of exotic (non-native) vegetation. Park size was not significantly impacting butterfly richness and abundance. Butterfly abundance was found to be significantly (and positively) related to percentage of canopy cover, total vegetation, presence of native vegetation, shrub abundance, diversity of shrub species, total flowering plants and number of palms. Human-related factors and anthropogenic disturbance were not significantly impacting butterfly species and abundance, as butterflies were not affected by visitor density, activities and noise levels. Two general recommendations for small urban parks to enhance butterfly diversity are provided: (1) development and management plans for small urban parks should emphasise the internal quality of the parks and incorporate social-ecological principles for achieving biodiversity conservation goals and (2) newly established small urban parks should have a planting design and configuration that provides food, habitat and protection for butterflies.

Impact of Green Facade:
Energy Saving on

Building Cooling Load

Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM)

Mohd Khairul Azhar bin Mat Sulaiman
Mohd Fairuz Shahidan

Energy efficiency is one of the current issues that has been debated due to the shortcoming of resources and its global impact on climate change. Recently, the usage of energy for cooling has been recorded by Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB) on 20 April 2016 at an all-time high, peak demand of 17,788 MW, due to the heat wave of El Nino weather phenomenon (Babulal 2016).

An intervention in bringing vegetation into a manmade environment as a passive technique has been attested to stimulate a better living environment and promote energy efficiency. Innovations in implementing vegetation onto exterior building
facades such as via a green roof, green wall, or vertical greenery systems (VGS) which include green facades, have been identified in encouraging potentials to ameliorate microclimate, not only on external and internal building environment, but also current and future urban climate conditions (Kuttler 2012).

Various studies have been conducted in demonstrating the positive impacts of these applications around the globe, in various climates, and locations. These techniques have been recognised worldwide as being able to reduce energy usage for air conditioning (Chen et al. 2013; Di & Wang 1999; Niachou et al. 2001; Stec et al. 2005; Wong et al. 2009).

Vertical foliage of the climbers (providing shade and shadow) used on green facades is identified as the main contributor for the energy saving (Perez et al. 2011a, b). However, little is known about the performance of green facades as a passive cooling solution on real scale building in tropical climates. Also, an inadequate study on the investigation of the impact of green facades on energy saving of cooling loads in the tropics. Therefore, this study is designed to investigate the energy saving performance from the implementation of green facade in the context of tropical climate and on real scale buildings.

Malaysian Threatened and Rare Tree
Landscape Guideline

Sime Darby Property & Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM)

Sime Darby Property:
Nor Azahar Md Husain
Sharif James Zainal Aziz
Norshahidah Todong

Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM):
Osman Mohd Tahir
Shamsul Khamis
Abd Aziz Othman
Emran@Zahrin Mohd Taram

This guideline covers 74 threatened and rare tree species endemic to Malaysia. The list is based on both the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List for Trees, and the Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), Malaysia Plant Red List. The intent of this guide is to be used for current and future landscape architectural practitioners in improving biological diversity conservation, by providing a semi-technical resource for landscape professionals to increase the sectors' knowledge and ability to first be able to identify and then understand how to utilise these species. Consequently, it is our vision that, through a growth in knowledge and awareness about these species and their potential benefits, demand will increase for such species. This in turn will hopefully lead to a higher rate of use of these threatened and rare tree species in urban landscape designs, with the ultimate goal to one day see such species in common use and categorised as least concern tree species. This guideline provides environmental information, botanical characteristics and diagnostic characters for identification of suitable rare and threatened trees for landscape design.

Building Information Modelling in
Landscape Architecture:
Prototype for Sustainability Design and Challenges

Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Shah Alam

Nor Diana Aziz
Ramly Hasan
Ghazali Mohd Amin
Firdaus bin Chek Sulaiman
Haji Abdul Hadi Haji Nawawi
Nor Rima Muhamad Arif

BIM is a tool that is said to be very useful in the Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) industry. In Malaysia, BIM adoption is considered low in the AEC industry. Meanwhile, in global landscape, architects still practice traditional designs due to several issues. The issue of less deep exposure of BIM, its proven benefits and the current lack of reliable scientific basis of landscape architecture for BIM and the foundation, means there is a need for knowledge about BIM theory and technology. Moreover, BIM is requested infrequently by the client. In addition, there is a limited number of landscape components in our libraries, combined with the complexity of BIM software and the majority of components and applications in BIM software said to focus on building structure. Such issues prompted the researchers to produce a small-scale BIM prototype for the purpose of promoting the benefits of sustainability landscape design. Thus, this study cooperated with three professionals, namely; a land surveyor (site planning), a landscape architect (landscape design), and a BIM modeller (BIM professional consumer) to learn if the use of BIM can reach the stage of sustainability design and identify the BIM challenges. This study is an attempt to produce a BIM-based design prototype with the aim to provide exposure and confidence among landscape architects by integrating BIM into the design stage. The final assessment of the BIM prototype allows landscape architects to enhance the communication with client or stakeholder in the aspect of creating the local model design, implementing sustainability design elements and understanding the risk readiness they will face in adopting BIM in landscape architecture.

Geodesign Approach in Cultural Heritage Landscape Planning

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM)

Ahmad bin Long
Wan Yusryzal bin Wan Ibrahim
Huzaifah bin Hasan
Lee Ho Yang
Nur Azman bin Ahmad Bukri

Human growth and transformation of landscape have caused a conflict between physical development appearance with degradation of cultural and natural heritage landscape. The situation affected the loss of cultural heritage value (tangible and intangible landscape) and detrimental of the surrounding environment.  Therefore, a sustainable landscape planning is vital in order to sustain the cultural heritage value and the tranquillity of the environment.  Understanding on their cultural elements uniqueness with geophysical relationship through integrated analysis is necessary to enhance the decision-making process in landscape planning. This research is articulated according to Steinitz's Geodesign framework (2012) which includes collaborations with stakeholders and organisations, geographical science data and GIS applications to achieve successful design solutions, using the Tangkak District of Johor, Malaysia as the case study. Thus, this research is conducted to investigate the significant of cultural heritage landscape and geophysical strength in Tangkak District. The cultural heritage and geophysical information were collected through survey and GPS spatial data collection. Geographic Information System (GIS) is used as the main tool to analyse the overall landscape elements in the study area. Then, Multi-criteria Analysis (MCA) and Potential Surface Analysis (PSA) techniques were utilized in spatial analysis to assess the significant cultural heritage landscape in the study area. The other techniques used in the analysis are Landscape Character Assessment (LCA), Landscape Viewshed Analysis (LVA) and SWOT.  The findings visualize the significant of places in Tangkak district that have cultural heritage values and environmental sensitivity. With different focuses and objectives several alternative master plans were produced to bring the ideas of approaches based on the significant of cultural heritage landscape and environmental protection. In addition, a number of action area plans were generated to translate the ideas from the master plans. The implementation of those ideas will consolidate the uniqueness of the cultural heritage landscape in Tangkak district and maintain environmental quality. In conclusion, the integration of landscape knowledge and technical skills shows the improvement of the understanding of cultural heritage landscape in decision-making process. It is contribute to orient the landscape design for promoting of landscape resources in Tangkak.

Factors Affecting the Implementation
of the Green Building Development

Sultan Idris Education University (UPSI)

Nor Kalsum Mohd. Isa
Ainul Samihah Albahori
Mohd Yazid Mohd. Yunos
Kamarul Ismail
Mazdi Marzuki

This research explores the issue of the lack implementation of the green building development among housing developers in Malaysia. It also discusses the roles of landscape architects in facilitating the green development in the country. Based on the previous studies, there was no research available on the factors affecting the implementation of the green building concept in housing development among housing developers of this country. Therefore, this research aims to study the factors affecting the implementation of the green building development among housing developers in Malaysia. The objectives of this study are to identify how far the housing development in Malaysia has implemented the green principles, to evaluate the factors affecting the implementation of the green building development among housing developers, and to suggest the method that should be practiced by the landscape architects to encourage the implementation of the green building development among the developers. The findings from literature review were used to formulate a conceptual framework of the factors affecting the green building implementation among housing developer to guide the research. The framework consists of 18 pro-environmental behaviours, 24 items of internal implementation factors, and 48 items of external factors. A questionnaire survey has been done towards 234 housing developers. The result from quantitative analysis through descriptive, Cronbach’s alpha, factor analysis, correlation, and multiple regression analysis by using Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS) software was brought to the case study and qualitative method to validate the finding. This research found that, the economic factors contribute about 16.1 % for developers without green project and 3.8% for developers with green project with regards to the green building implementation. Social and cultural factors contribute about 7.6% to the green building implementation for all developers. Landscape architect could contribute to encourage the green building implementation among housing developers by employing the approaches that focus on the economic, social and cultural factors. Attitude and value as a landscape should be considered to encourage the implementation.

Tin Mining Landuse and Social Changes Towards Heritage Landscape Conservation

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM)

Lee Yoke Lai
Zanariah Jasmani
Sapura Mohamad
Siti Wardahinah Farahain Abdullah
Nurul Hidayah binti Mohd Derus

Tin mining was the oldest industry vital part to generate to Malaya economics since the mid-19th century. Wherein, Larut and Kinta Valley mines in Perak State was the principle tin state that formed the largest and main tin-belt in Malay Peninsula to produce mass tin deposits. Hence, tin economic booms had accelerated Perak to become the wealthiest and developed state. However, due to the landscape changed caused by tin ceased, rapid urbanisation and vague understanding of mining landscape would be the challenging to maintain the relic’s tin landscape and mining town. Hence, this paper discourses and examines mining landscape transformation through the landuse and socially changed over the tin industrialisation periods. This research conducted a case study in Taiping as it was the first tin town in Malay states that possessed the richest historical and cultural heritage values inherited by British colonial townscape and tin town planning. Inasmuch, qualitative research method is conducted to investigate the landuse and tin industrial society changes via historical documents review, landuse mapping, urban morphology, cultural mapping and old photographs. Subsequently, research finding reveals Taiping underwent mining landscape and physical heritage alterations. Hence, it is essentials to recommend and conserve heritage core tin town, regional mining landscape, tin industrial railway linear landscape, social spaces and colonial townscape preservation. In short, heritage landscape conservation contributes to the safeguarding of post-mining landscape and the inheritance diversity social spaces.    

Towards Sustainable

Development of a Landfill:
Landfill to Landscape or
Landscape along with Landfill

Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM)

Ashkan Nochian
Osman Mohd Tahir

Among prevalent methods of disposal for municipal solid waste, landfilling is the most common one. A landfill requires a piece of land and receive a huge amount of wastes for a certain period of time. Many landfills all around the world are located into or nearby urban areas where the land is scarce and highly demanded. Therefore, an important question arise how to re-use this piece of threatening land. The aim of this study is to highlight the benefits of landscape work with the roles of landscape architects to succeed a sustainable development of a landfill site not only after the landfill being closed but also from the beginning of it. To achieve this, a comprehensive investigation has been done among related literature to address these issues plus site observation and analysis of Air Hitam Sanitary Landfill (AHSL) Pochung as a case study to prove that landscape work is one of the key factors that can lead a landfill project to a more successful and beneficial one which eventually makes the project sustainable. The study also did a survey questionnaire from people for some particular data to understand their preference. The findings of the study are useful for those who are engaging in landfill industries both practitioners and academicians and will contribute a knowledge about sustainable development of landfill from different perspective. It also help landscape Architects to have more opportunities to engage in landfill development from beginning to the end.

Effects of Tree Species Selection
on Hazardous Street Trees
in Urban Areas

Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) Shah Alam

Ramly Hasan
Firdaus Chek Sulaiman
Nor Diana Aziz
Noriah Othman
Faridah Ismail
Che Bon Ahmad

Malaysia is a rich country in various species of trees planted in urban areas. Pterocarpus indicus (Angsana) have been planted in Malacca at 1778 years, next planted in Penang at 1802 years Owing to the beauty of its spreading crown and ease propagation species, Pterocarpus indicus (Angsana) become a famous tree for urban planting in Malaysia and Singapore. However, these species were reported to be drying rapidly in Malacca, Penang and Singapore because of an unknown disease. In rapid development, certain organisations ignored the tree species selection and cared needed for the tree to grow healthy. Also, the rule in modern arboriculture is ‘the right tree in the right place’, means the wrong tree is planted in a wrong place, no matter and what kind of methods and how many resources are being devoted to preserving trees, which trees potentially categorised as hazard trees. The aim of this research is to improve the selection of the street trees species suitability for roadside that serves the purpose as well as for easy maintenance and safety reason. The objectives of this research are (i) to identify the suitability of trees species at roadside areas (ii) to investigate the factors effecting the selection of street tree species (iii) to analyse the factors of street tree species selection based on the characteristics of trees species. The methodology uses mix method which is primary data collection, survey questionnaires and expert interviews. Statistical Packaging for Social Science (SPSS) version 21.0 is used to analyse the data. The rational of this research is inspired from Eleven Malaysia Plan 2016 – 2020 as the important driver for landscape architecture growth to creating Beautiful Garden Nation with a good manage of street trees, beautiful and clean environment. It is supported by the National Landscape Policy 2011, Local Agenda 21, Sustainable City Planning Policy and Green and Liveable Cities as well. The policy has been put in place to address the issue of the hazardous street trees in Malaysia and the important of selection tree species through comprehensive strategies and approach by the landscape architects and other professionals. Four effects of street tree species selection are determined namely environmental constraint, social factors, cultural factors and economic factors. The findings of this study will be used as guidance for landscape architects and landscape designer to make the right selection for street trees species.

Perception Analysis on

Awareness and Preparedness at

TNB Sultan Abu Bakar Hydroelectric Scheme, Cameron Highlands

International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM)

Ismawi Hj. Zen
Mohd Ramzi Mohd Hussain
Izawati Tukiman
Aishah Naqiah Ahmad Shazili
Sivadass Thiruchelvam
Rashidi Sabri Muda

Enhancing Climate Change

Mitigation Design Towards

Urban Neighbourhood Area

Through a Low Carbon Capability Behaviour Framework

Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM)

Ani Shazwani Abas
Mohd. Yazid Mohd. Yunus
Fazlawati Abdul Aziz
Nor Kalsum Mohd. Isa
Nor Atiah Ismail

Develop a Design Framework for a
Historic Waterfront to

Enhance the Historic Waterfront’s
Impression of Place

Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM)

Mohd Amirul Hussain
Mohd. Yazid Mohd. Yunos
Nor Atiah Ismail
Nangkula Utaberta

Design Criteria Contribution
from Bee Analysis
Towards Vibrant Neighbourhood

Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM)

Nur Afikah Idrus
Mohd. Yazid Mohd. Yunos
Khairul Aidil Azlin Abd. Rahman
Noor Fazamimah Mohd. Ariffin
Nor Kalsum Mohd. Isa

Compact Urban Living Food Garden

Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM)

Khairul Aidil Azlin Abd Rahman
Mohd Hafiz Talib

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